KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen <p><strong>KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia</strong> is a peer-reviewed journal of chemistry that published by the Chemistry Department, Tadulako University, Indonesia. This journal concern with publishing the original research articles, review articles, and the current issues related to chemistry. Publishing frequency 3 issues per year, in April, August, and December. KOVALEN has been established since 2015 with volume 1 no 1 (December 2015) and has been <strong>accredited by DIKTI in the SINTA 4 category (No. 164/ E/ KPT/2021)</strong>.</p> <p><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<strong><strong>2477-5398 (electronic)</strong></strong></strong></p> <p>The Scope of this journal including:<br>1. Theoretical and environmental chemistry study<br>2. Material and biomaterial synthesis, including their application&nbsp;<br>3. Isolation, purification, and modification of the natural product<br>4. Development and validation of analytical methods<br>5. Isolation and application of enzyme</p> Chemistry Department, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty, Tadulako University en-US KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2477-5398 Identifikasi Senyawa Fraksi Larut n-Heksana Rimpang Temu Mangga (Curcuma mangga Val) Menggunakan LC-MS/MS dan Review Potensinya sebagai Antibakteri https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15897 <p>Plants are like the pharmaceutical industry that provides products that have the potential as active medicinal ingredients. In order to search for compounds useful for health, the purpose of this study was to identify secondary metabolites of <em>Curcuma mango</em> (temu mango) growing in the experimental garden of Biopharmaca LPPM IPB and review its activity as antibacterial. Identification begins with phytochemical screening, then separation and purification by chromatographic techniques. Intersection mango simplicia was extracted with methanol, and the crude extract of methanol was partitioned with <em>n</em>-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The n-hexane soluble fraction was carried out by phytochemical tests, fractionation by vacuum liquid chromatography (KCV) and radial (KR), and the selected fractions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results of the phytochemical test of the soluble <em>n</em>-hexane fraction showed a positive presence of alkaloids and terpenoids through successive tests with Mayer, Wagner, Dragendorff (alkaloid), and Lieberman-Burchard reagents. Fractionation of the n-hexane soluble fraction with KCV resulted in 9 fractions (H1-H9) and the H5 fraction showed good separation between spots in the n-hexane: ethyl acetate eluent mixture (97:3). Purification of H5 with KR obtained 7 fractions (H5.1-H5.7). Based on LC-MS/MS, the H5.2 fraction was dominated by the terpenoid group, and the results of the literature review showed the contribution of terpenoids as antibacterial compounds</p> Purwantinigsih Sugita Risda Fardilya Nihayah Moch Ikkbal Aditya Kasmaran Gustini Syahbirin Auliya Ilmiawati Budi Arifin Luthfan Irfana Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 99 112 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15897 Delaminasi Perekat Polivinil Asetat Berbasis Air Satu Komponen untuk Aplikasi Kayu Keras Ulin dan Merbau https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15900 <p>Water-based adhesive was one of the most important media for bonding substrates to one another because of their environmental friendly character. Previously, in the application of hardwood adhesives such as <em>Ulin </em>and <em>Merbau</em>, the type of adhesive used was a two-component system. For this reason, a one-component water-based adhesive was introduced in this study. The advantage of these was environmental friendly and high durability. In this application, delamination was one of the important parameters to determine whether the adhesive used was well penetrated or not. For this reason, delamination will be the main parameter in this study. This research includes the preparation of tools and materials, manufacture of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) solution, polymerization of polyvinyl acetate by mixing the main raw material of vinyl acetate monomer and PVOH solution using APS (ammonium persulfate) initiator. The polymerization process was carried out at 1 atm pressure and 75<sup>o</sup>C – 80<sup>o</sup>C temperature accompanied by stirring with ±500 rpm rotation rate. Final product is a homopolymer PVAc (polyvinyl acetate) with PVOH Z-210 with AAEM (acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate) content having an acetoxy functional group. A delamination test was carried out on the final product with a modified test based on Japanese Agricultural Standard 1152 where the product was immersed in water for 360 minutes, then placed in an oven at 40<sup>o</sup>C for 18 hours. Samples using PVOH with AAEM content have an average delamination rate of 0.67-1.67% while existing products on the market have an average delamination rate of 45.83-52.08%.</p> Retno Indarti Agustinus Ngatin Robby Sudarman Tifa Paramitha Rony Pasonang Sihombing Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 113 119 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15900 Sintesis dan Karakterisasi Carbon Nanodots dengan Metode Microwave Assisted Extraction https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15910 <p>Carbon nanodots (CNDs) is one of the carbon nanoparticles that are environmentally friendly, non-toxic, and have optical properties. The aim of this study was to synthesize CNDs from ascorbic acid as a precursor using the Microwave Assisted Extraction method. method. Best results are obtained at 4 minutes of heating and 500W of power. The synthesized CNDs solution showed a blue color under 365 nm UV light. The measurement results with UV Vis spectrophotometer showed the maximum wavelength at 341.5 nm with an energy gap of 5.57 eV. The results of the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis show that CNDs have the -OH (hydroxyl) functional group at a wave number of 3354.61 cm<sup>-1</sup> and C=O functional group at a wave number of 1633.09 cm<sup>-1</sup>. Characterization results using High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed that CNDs were spherical in shape with a particle size range of 2.54-9.48 nm.</p> Mentik Hulupi Haryadi Nabila Sofiyani Rizka Amalia Nuriana Retno Indarti Fauzi Abdilah Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 120 126 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15910 Pengaruh Penambahan Minyak Zaitun Terhadap Karakteristik dan Reologi Edible Film Berbahan Dasar Gluten https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15948 <p>Gluten vegetable protein can be used as an alternative source of biopolymer as the basic material for edible film other than polysaccharides. Gluten-based edible films have a poor water vapor barrier and high cohesive and viscoelastic properties, therefore the addition of lipids and plasticizers is required. In this study, olive oil was added to reduce its permeability to water vapor, while glycerin was added to produce a more flexible edible film. The results showed that the addition of 1% olive oil could reduce the lowest water vapor transmission rate of 9.14 g/m<sup>2</sup>/24 hours with a thickness of 0.248 mm, tensile strength of 16.64 mPa, and elongation of 419.5%. The four characteristics are in accordance with the Japanese Industrial Standard. The antimicrobial testing on edible films showed that the addition of 0-2% olive oil could inhibit the growth of <em>E. coli</em>, while <em>A. niger</em> and <em>R. oryzae</em> 0-2% olive oil could not inhibit the growth of the two fungi. The measurement of optical properties showed that the transparency of the edible film was highest at the addition of 0% olive oil at 55%. The highest opacity value was with the addition of 1% olive oil<strong>, </strong>which is 2.96<strong>.</strong> The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) identification showed that the edible film added with 1% olive oil had three characteristic absorption bands from gluten<strong>,</strong> olive oil<strong>,</strong> and an absorption band from glycerin. These bands indicate that olive oil, glycerin, and gluten do not react but only physically interact. The measurement using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) showed that the microstructure of gluten-based edible film produces a varied structure where the gluten structure network can be clearly observed and contains elements of C, O, N where the intensity of C and O elements of 160-400 cps and 30-100 cps, respectively.</p> Nancy Siti Djenar Joko Suryadi Nisa Siti Nursaadah Erina Putri Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 127 141 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15948 Potensi Minyak Herbal STIFA Pelita Mas Terhadap Kadar Ureum dan Kreatinin Tikus Kondisi Hiperglikemik https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15820 <p>Utilization of natural preparations is a treatment carried out by the community with the aim of improving health status naturally. Traditional medicine has become an alternative for the community due to the relatively high cost of modern medicine. One of the diseases with a high financing burden is kidney disease, which is after heart and blood vessel disease. This study aims to determine the potential of traditional medicinal preparations of Herbal Oil STIFA Pelita Mas on the state of urea and creatinine concentrations in experimental animals, this research used white male rats divided into six treatments. Determination of urea and creatinine levels was carried out starting from days 1, 7, 14, 21 to 28, then normality and homogeneity tests were carried out, and parametric statistics were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test. The results showed that the administration of STIFA Pelita Mas Herbal Oil in Formula 1, 2, and 3 had urea levels of 42.60 mg/dL, 28.64 mg/dL, and 51.46 mg/dL, respectively. The average values ​​of creatinine in Formula 1, 2, and 3 were 0.73 mg/dL, 0.63 mg/dL, and 0.92 mg/dL, respectively. The administration of Formula 2 was effective in reducing the concentration of urea and creatinine. Pelita Mas herbal oil preparation can be used as a medicine to improve kidney structure.</p> Joni Tandi Dewi Astuti Magfirah Magfirah Tien Wahyu Handayani Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 142 149 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15820 Optimization and Kinetic Study of Ende-Natural Zeolite as Candidates of Ammonia Adsorbent on Broiler Chicken Litter https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15914 <p>Zeolite Natural Ende (ZNE) is a local material from Ende, East Nusa Tenggara which can be used as an adsorbent candidate to reduce environmental pollution due to poultry farm wastes. The purpose of this study is to obtain optimal conditions and adsorption kinetics of ZNE as an adsorbent in terms of absorbing NH<sub>3</sub>, water content, and neutralizing pH on broiler litter. This study consisted of 3 stages such as sample preparation, optimization of acid concentration, particle size, contact time, adsorbate concentration, as well as determination of ZNE-methylene blue adsorption kinetics. The results of the analysis revealed that the best conditions are using 1 M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4, </sub>particle size 80 mesh, contact time for 30 minutes with an adsorption capacity of 1.999 mg/g, and methylene blue 80 ppm as an optimal condition. Furthermore, ZNE-methylene blue adsorption kinetics model is the second order type 1 kinetics by R<sup>2 </sup>= 1, and also adsorption rate constant is 0.0019 g.mg<sup>-1</sup>.min</p> Abner Tonu Lema Cytske Sabuna Yehezkial Wila Balu Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 150 157 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15914 Antioxidant Potential of Ethanol Extract from Mango Parasite (Dendrophthoe petandra) to Maintain Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Quality https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15954 <p>The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of adding natural antioxidants from ethanolic extract of mango parasite (<em>Dendrophthoe petandra</em>) to oxidation stability of crude palm oil (CPO) during storage. The parameters tested were levels of free fatty acid (FFA), acid values, and deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI). The antioxidant activity of <em>D. petandra</em> extract obtained was IC<sub>50</sub> of 6.369 ppm. Concentrations of <em>D. petandra </em>extract range from 200 to 1000 ppm. Based on the results, the ethanolic extract of <em>D. petandra </em>was able to reduce the FFA and acid value and increase the DOBI compared to the negative control. The lowest FFA levels and acid numbers were obtained from samples with addition of 1000 ppm natural antioxidants with FFA of 4.2% and acid value of 7.4 mg KOH/g, while the DOBI value increased to 1.300.</p> Ninik Triayu Susparini Rohmatulloh Boima Situmeang Isna Lailatusholihah Siti Rohmiyati Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 158 164 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15954 Pengaruh Konsentrasi Inhibitor dari Eceng Gondok dalam Air Hujan dan Air Kran terhadap Laju Korosi https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15931 <p>Organic inhibitors in the corrosion process could be obtained from water hyacinth plant. This plant contained antioxidants such as saponins, which could bind to protective metals from corrosion. The objective of this study was to observe the corrosion rate degradation in rainwater and tap water with saponin content of water hyacinth extract with novelty of using methanol in the maceration process. The sample: methanol ratio used in the maceration process was 1 : 9 (w/v). Steel testing was carried out for 5 days in rainwater and tap water. Based on the test results, the saponin content in the water hyacinth extract could be proven by the stability of the foam produced. The experimental results showed a corrosion rate escalation in tap water samples from 47.7% to 94.5% and samples in rainwater from 11.3% to 52.9% at 75 ppm inhibitor concentration. Based on the research, water hyacinth extract using methanol solvent could be used as a corrosion inhibitor.</p> Emma Hermawati Yunus Tonapa Sarungu Bambang Soeswanto Rispiandi Alfiana Adhitasari Sudrajat Harris Abdulloh Rony Pasonang Sihombing Retno Indarti Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 165 170 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15931 Penurunan Kadar Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) pada Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Menggunakan Arang Aktif dari Pelepah Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guenensis Jacq.) https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15966 <p>Oil palm midribs (<em>Elaeis guenensis</em> Jacq.) are one of the wastes from oil palm plantations. The high carbon element composition in the palm midribs has the potential to be used as charcoal or activated carbon. Activated carbon can reduce COD levels in tofu industrial wastewater. This study aims to determine the effect of activated carbon mass and contact time on decreasing COD levels in tofu industrial wastewater. Palm midrib charcoal was activated using HCl 1N with the independent variable of activated charcoal mass (1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 grams) and contact times (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes), while the dependent variable was the percentage decrease COD levels. Activated charcoal from the palm midribs was in accordance with SNI 06-3730-1995 concerning the Quality Standard of Activated Charcoal. The effect of the adsorbent mass showed that the mass increase in activated charcoal was directly proportional to the percentage decrease in COD levels in the tofu industrial wastewater, while the optimum contact time of activated charcoal was obtained at 60 minutes with a decrease in COD levels of 82.13%.</p> Khairuddin Ruslan Ruslan Muh.Ricky Arisandi M. Tahili Dwi Juli Puspitasari Indriani Husain Sosidi Prismawiryanti Moh. Mirzan Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 171 177 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15966 Validation of Boron Analytical Methods on Standard Reference Material Tomato Leaves from NIST No. 1573a with Isothermal Distillation by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15955 <p>Boron analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry has been developed through distilling triethoxy borane into the curcumin solution. In the distillation of ester borane, an esterification reaction occurs between borate and ethanol. Validation of isothermal distillation methods by UV-Vis spectrometry needs to be done to obtain specific, accurate, and reproducible results. The distillation for 24 hours at 25°C gave the optimum result. UV-Vis spectrophotometry wavelength was 535 nm. The standard curve was linear in the concentration range of 1-5 ppm (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9995) with a sensitivity of 0.0902 ppm<sup>-1</sup>, a limit of detection of 0.002±0.001 ppm, the limit of quantification of 0.006±0.001 ppm, and percent recovery of 88%.</p> Isna Lailatusholihah Roto Agus Kuncaka Ninik Triayu Susparini Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 178 183 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15955 Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Kulit Batang Tumbuhan Johar (Senna siamea Lam) pada Berbagai Polaritas Pelarut https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15970 <p>Johar plant is a type of plant from the <em>Fabaceae </em>family which is widely used in traditional medicine such as malaria, itching and diabetes medicine. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Johar stem bark extract with different levels of solvent polarity on the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli </em>bacteria and to determine the active compound class by TLC-Bioautography. The extraction of active compounds used a multilevel maceration method starting with <em>n</em>-hexane (non polar), followed by ethyl acetate (semi-polar) and ethanol (polar) solvents. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out by diffusion well method with a concentration variant of 25% and 50%. The results showed that n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extract had antibacterial activity against the two test bacteria. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract from Johar stem bark at a concentration of 50% were classified as very strong antibacterials with inhibition zone diameters against <em>S. aureus,</em> which were 22.02±0.84 mm and 20.16±0.23 mm, respectively. The results of the TLC-Bioautography test showed that the three test extracts had strong antibacterial activity against <em>S. aureus </em>and <em>E. coli</em>. In the n-hexane extract with <em>n</em>-hexane: ethyl acetate (9:1) eluent using Lieberman-Burchard spray reagent, it was suspected that triterpenoid compounds were present. In ethyl acetate extract with <em>n</em>-hexane: ethyl acetate (6:4) eluent and ethanol extract with chloroform: methanol (8:2) eluent using FeCl<sub>3 </sub>1% spray reagent, it was suspected that the tannin compound was present in both extracts.</p> Djumidar Abd. Rahman Razak Ahmad Ridhay Ni Ketut Sumarni Syamsuddin Jusman Nurhaeni Erwin Abdul Rahim Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 184 195 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15970 Pengaruh Penyimpanan dan Lama Pemanasan Terhadap Kadar Asam Galat pada Kacang Tanah (Arachis hypogaea L.) https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15947 <p>One of the most prevalent phenolic acids to be found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and herbal remedies is gallic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. The free acids, esters, catechin derivatives, and hydrolyzed tannins are the different ways that these substances are obtained. The specialty of this compound is due to its pharmacological activity as a radical scavenger. The total phenolic content in peanuts varies from 132.5 to 248.8 mg GAE/100 g. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of storage time and heating time of peanuts (<em>Arachis hypogaea</em> L.) on gallic acid levels. Determination of gallic acid using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method with the column used is an ODS (Octadesil Silica) C18 column and the mobile phase is a mixture of acetonitrile and aquadest (1:3). Peanuts were stored for 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks at 25°C and fried at 160°C for 2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 6 minutes. The results of this study on the length of storage obtained a P value of 0.000 where the results are smaller than 0.05. This indicates that storage time has a significant effect on gallic acid levels in peanut samples. Gallic acid levels appear to increase from the first week to the fourth week. Based on the results of the research at the time of heating obtained a P value of 0.189 where the results are higher than 0.05. This shows that the length of heating time does not affect on the gallic acid content in the peanut samples. From these results, it was concluded that gallic acid content was affected by storage time, but not by heating time.</p> Devyana Dyah Wulandari Ersalina Nidianti Ary Andini Rahmawati Fitri Awalia Halimah Prisilia Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 196 201 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15947 Potensi Ekstrak Batang Kayu Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L.) dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Bakteri https://bestjournal.untad.ac.id/index.php/kovalen/article/view/15962 <p>The study of the potential of Gempol wood stem extract (<em>Nauclea orientalis</em> L.) with three solvent polarities has been exercised to determine the extract with a certain polarity and the smallest concentration that can inhibit the growth of bacteria <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coil</em>. Extraction is performed using the maceration method with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol as solvents. Furthermore, the potency in inhibiting the growth of bacteria was observed by the diffusion method with a range of extract concentrations from the largest to the smallest. The extract's ability to inhibit bacterial growth in the time range of up to 24 hours was measured using the turbidimetric method. The results showed that ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were able to inhibit the growth of both bacteria in a wide concentration range (100 %– 5%), although n-hexane extracts showed the highest percentage in inhibiting both bacteria (15.27 mm and 16.89 mm, respectively). Turbidimetric assays showed the extract was stronger in inhibiting <em>S. aureus</em> compared to <em>E. coli</em> in the logarithmic phase range of 12 hours. This study showed that semipolar and polar extracts can inhibit the growth of bacteria with a wider concentration range compared to non-polar extracts despite having a higher inhibition capability.</p> Ni Kadek Atmiyanti Pasjan Satrimafitrah Abd. Rahman Razak Nov Irmawati Inda Indriani Dwi Juli Puspitasari Copyright (c) 2022 KOVALEN: Jurnal Riset Kimia 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 8 2 202 209 10.22487/kovalen.2022.v8.i2.15962