Main Article Content

Abstract

Songi (Dillenia serrata) is a tree endemic to Southeast Sulawesi and its stem bark been used in folk medicine. Nonetheless, only a handful scientific knowledge regarding chemistry and biological activities has been investigated on the plant. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of the stem bark of the plant. Methanol extract and organic fractions (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol) of the dried powdered stem bark of songi were evaluated for phytochemical screening, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH, FRAP, and XO in vitro assays. Flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, and saponins present in the extract. TPC and TFC in extract were 59.2 mg GAE/g and 23.4 mg QE/g. The contents in organic fractions were in solvent-dependent manner (methanol>ethyl acetate>petroleum ether). Extract and fractions scavenged DPPH radicals (48.2–59.7%) at 100 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid, trolox, and gallic acid (90.3–93.8%). FRAP values varied from 0.8–3.4 μg/μg equivalent trolox amount (quercetin and gallic acid were 25.7 dan 32.4 μg/μg, respectively). They also inhibited xanthine oxidase (15.3–50.3%) at 100 μg/mL (allopurinol, 98.2%). The study concluded the potential of methanol extract and organic fraction of the stem bark of songi, thus highlighted the prospect of songi to be used in herbal and drugs development from nature.

Keywords

Dilleniaceae Dillenia serrata Thunb. Fenolik Flavonoid Antioksidan Xantin Oksidase

Article Details

Author Biographies

Juriyati Jalil, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Norizan Ahmat, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Nor-Ashila Aladdin, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Harni Sartika Kamaruddin, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka

Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Kolaka, Indonesia.

Retno Wahyuningrum, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka

Program Studi Farmasi, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Kolaka, Indonesia.

How to Cite
Sabandar, C. W., Jalil, J., Ahmat, N., Aladdin, N.-A., Kamaruddin, H. S., & Wahyuningrum, R. (2020). Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Penghambatan Xantin Oksidase Kulit Batang Songi (Dillenia serrata Thunb.): Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Stem Bark of Songi (Dillenia serrata Thunb.). Jurnal Farmasi Galenika (Galenika Journal of Pharmacy) (e-Journal), 6(1), 151 - 159. https://doi.org/10.22487/j24428744.2020.v6.i1.15008

References

  1. Adesanwo, J. K., Makinde, O. O., Obafemi, C. A. (2013). Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of methanol extract and betulinic acid isolated from the roots of Tetracera potatoria. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 6, 903-907.
  2. Apak, R., Gorinstein, S., Böhm, V., Schaich, K. M., Özyürek, M., Güçlü, K. (2013). Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 85, 957-998.
  3. Ayoola, G. A., Coker, H. A. B., Adesegun, S. A., Adepoju-Bello, A. A., Obaweya, K., Ezennia, E. C., Atangbayila, T. O. (2008). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 7, 1019-1024.
  4. Biswas, S.K. (2016). Does the interdependence between oxidativev stress and inflammation explain the antioxidant paradox?. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2016, 5698931.
  5. El Ridi, R., Tallima, H. (2017). Physiological functions and pathogenic potential of uric acid: a review. Journal of Advanced Research, 8, 487-493.
  6. Huang, D., Ou, B., Prior, R. L. (2005). The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 1841-1856.
  7. ISO 14502-1 (2005). Determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. Part 1: content of total polyphenols in tea-colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. International Organization for Standardization.
  8. Jalil, J. Sabandar, C. W., Ahmat, N., Jamal, J. A., Jantan, I., Aladdin, N. -A., Muhammad, K., Buang, F., Mohamad, H. F., Sahidin, I. (2015). Inhibitory effect of triterpenoids from Dillenia serrata (Dilleniaceae) on prostaglandin E2 production and quantitative HPLC analysis of its koetjapic acid and betulinic acid contents. Molecules, 20, 3206-3220.
  9. Jansen, P. C. M., Jukema, J., Oyen, L. P. A., van Lingen, T. G. (1992). Dillenia serrata Thunb. In Verheij, E. W. M., Coronol, R. E. (Eds.), Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 2: edible fruit and Nuts (p. 328). Bogor: Prosea Foundation.
  10. Kostić, D. A., Dimitrijević, D. S., Stojanović, G. S., Palić, I. R., Đorđević, S., Ickovski, D. (2015). Xanthine oxidase: isolation, assays of activity, and inhibition. Journal of Chemistry, 2015, 294858.
  11. Lim, T. K. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 2, Fruits. Heidelberg: Springer.
  12. Nile, S. H., Nile, A., Liu, J., Kim, D. H., Kai, G. (2019). Exploitation of apple pomace towards extraction of triterpenic acids, antioxidant potential, cytotoxic effects, and inhibition of clinically important enzymes. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 131, 110563.
  13. Nobakht, G. M., Kadir, M. A., Stanslas, J. (2010). Analysis of preliminary phytochemical screening of Typhonium flagelliforme. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 1655-1657.
  14. Quattrocchi, U. F. L. S. (2012). CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants. New York: CRC Press.
  15. Reuter, S., Gupta, S. C., Chaturvedi, M. M., Aggarwal, B. B. (2010). Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked?. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 49, 1603-1616.
  16. Sabandar, C. W., Jalil, J., Ahmat, N., Aladdin, N. -A. (2017). Medicinal uses, chemistry and pharmacology of Dillenia species (Dilleniaceae). Phytochemistry, 134, 6-25.
  17. Seruji, N. M. U., Khong, H. Y., Kutoi, C. J. (2012). Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae). Journal of Chemistry, 2013.
  18. WHO (World Health Organization), 2013. WHO traditional medicine strategy 2014–2023. Switzerland: WHO Press.
  19. Windardi, F. I., Rahayu, M., Uji, T., Rustiami, H. (2006). Pemanfaatan tumbuhan sebagai bahan obat oleh masyarakat lokal suku Muna di kecamatan Wakarumba, kabupaten Muna, Sulawesi Utara. Biodiversitas, 7, 339-339.
  20. Yang, H., Dong, Y., Du, H., Shi, H., Peng, Y., Li, X. (2011). Antioxidant compounds from propolis collected in Anhui, China. Molecules, 16, 3444-3455.