Main Article Content
Tetracycline is an antibiotic that widely used for human treatment and veterinary. Tetracycline is also known as one of the persistent antibiotics in environment. This study aims to develop and validate analysis method for tetracycline in wastewater samples and use this method to determine tetracycline concentration in wastewater samples. The analysis is carried out by extracting samples using SPE C18 and tetracycline was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) detector that has been optimized and validated. The result of this study revealed that the developed method was valid enough to determine tetracycline in the range of 0.21 – 3.16 µg/mL showed by the correlation coefficient of 0.999, limit detection and quantification of 0.102 µg/mL and 0.340 µg/mL respectively, precision (RSD) of 5.2 – 5.6% (intra-day) and 4.8 – 5.7% (inter-day) respectively and accuracy (% recovery) of 94.6%. This study shows that tetracycline was not detected in the analyzed wastewater samples.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Finley, R. L., Collignon, P., Larsson, D. G. J., McEwen, S. A., Li, X. Z., Gaze, W. H., et al. (2013). The scourge of antibiotic resistance: the important role of the environment. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 57:704–10.
- Gaze, W. H., Krone, S. M., Larsson, D. G. J., Li, X. Z., Robinson, J. A., Simonet, P., et al. (2013). Influence of humans on evolution and mobilization of environmental antibiotic resistome. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 19:7. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/ eid1907.120871.
- Jjemba, P. K., (2006). Excretion and ecotoxicity of pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment. Ecotoxicology and Enviromental Safety, 63, 113–130. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.11.011.
- Kümmerer, K. (2009). Antibiotics in the aquatic environment–a review–part I, Chemosphere, 75, 417–434. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.11.086.
- Latimer, G. W. Jr. (2016). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (20th ed.). Maryland, USA: AOAC International.
- Martinez, J. L. (2009). The role of natural environments in the evolution of resistance traits in pathogenic bacteria. Proceedings of the Royal Biol Society B: Biologycal Sciences, 276:2521–30.
- Miller, J. N., Miller, J. C. (2010). Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry (6th ed.). Gosport, UK: Pearson Education Limited.
- Singer, A. C., Shaw, H., Rhodes, V., Hart, A.. (2016). Review of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and its relevance to environmental regulators. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01728.
- Van Boeckel, T. P., Gandra, S., Ashok, A., Caudron, Q., Grenfell, B. T., Levin, S. A., Laxminarayan, R. (2014). Global antibiotic consumption 2000 to 2010: an analysis of national pharmaceutical sales data. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14, 742–750. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70780-7.
- Wellington, E. M. H., Boxall, A. B. A., Cross, P., Feil, E. J., Gaze, W. H., Hawkey, P. M., et al. (2013). The role of the natural environment in the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13:155–65.