Main Article Content
Background: Atherosclerosis is a major finding in cardiovascular disease. One of the pro-fibrotic cytokines that play an important role in the atherosclerosis process is Tumor Growth Factor (TGF)-β1, where the presence of high TGF-β1 secretion due to hypercholesterolemia will trigger excessive collagen matrix formation. Objective: To analyze Rhizophora sp fruit extract effect on TGF-β1 expression in high cholesterol diet-fed rats. Material and Methods: Eighteen 10-week-old rats weighing 150-200 g were used in this study. These animals were grouped into 3 groups, each consisting of 6 rats. Group A (normal control) is a group of rats that received a normal diet. Group B (atherogenic control) received a diet that induces atherosclerosis (atherogenic diet). This diet contains 2% cholesterol, 5% goat fat, 0.2% cholic acid and standard diet up to 100%. Atherogenic diet was given for 3 days, and on the first day this group also received vitamin D3 700,000 IU/kg. Group C (treated), apart from receiving an atherogenic diet, was also given Rhizophora sp fruit extract 500 mg/kg body weight. The Rhizophora sp fruit extract effect on TGF-β1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical procedure. The area of the expression is calculated using the ImageJ. Results: The results of this study indicate that the expression of TGF-β1 is higher in the group receiving the atherogenic diet than the normal control group (17.3 vs. 8.9; P=0.000). Rhizophora sp fruit extract reduced this expression remarkably (17.3 vs. 11.4; P=0.001). Conclusion: Rhizophora sp fruit extract inhibits the the expression of TGF-β1 in high cholesterol diet-fed rats.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
- Abeysinghe, P. D. (2010). Antibacterial activity of some medicinal mangrove against antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. India J Pharm Sci, 72(2), 167-72.
- Aronson, D. (2003). Cross-linking of glycated collagen in the pathogenesis of arterial and myocardial stiffening of aging and diabetes. J Hypertens, 21(1), 3–12.
- Bakar, A., Purnama, P., Rahmayuni, R. (2013). Pengelolaan hutan mangrove dan pemanfaatannya dalam meningkatkan ekonomi masyarakat pesisir pantai Provinsi Riau. Kutubkhanah, 16(2), 94-103.
- Das, S. K., Samantaray, D., Patra, J. K., Samanta, L., Thatoi, H. (2016). Antidiabetic potential of mangrove plants: a review. Frontiers in Life Sci, 9(1), 75-88.
- Gurudeeban, S., Satyavani, K., Ramanathan, T., Balasubramanian, T. (2012). Antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Adv Pharm Technol Res, 3(1), 52-6.
- Hamidy, M. Y., Masdar, H., Darmawi, D. (2020). Effect of Mangrove (Rhizophora sp) Fruit Extract on Foam Cell Formation at the Initiation Stage of Atherosclerosis. Biomed Pharmacol J, 13(1).
- Hansson, G. K. (2005). Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med, 352, 1685-95.
- Harsha, S., Ankita, J., Harsha, L., Deepak, B.(2018). Anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effect of taurine on hypercholesterolemia induce atherosclerotic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 10(3), 145-150.
- Herrmann, J., Lerman, L. O., Lerman, A. (2010). On to the road to degradation: atherosclerosis and the proteasome. Cardiovasc Res, 85, 291-302.
- Horkko, S., Binder, C. J., Shaw, P. X., Chang, M. K., Silverman, G., Palinski, W., Witztum, J. L. (2000). Immunological responses to oxidized LDL. Free Radic Biol Med, 28, 1771–9.
- Ismawati, Oenzil, F., Yanwirasti, Yerizel, E. (2016). Changes in expression of proteasome in rats at different stages of atherosclerosis. Anat Cell Biol, 49, 99-106.
- Krishnamoorthy, M., Sasikumar, J. M., Shamna, R., Pandiarajan, C., Sofia, P., Nagarajan, B. (2011). Antioxidant activities of bark extract from mangroves, Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume and Ceriops decandra Perr. Indian J Pharmacol, 43(5), 557-62.
- Li, W. Q., Qureshi, H. Y., Liacini, A., Dehnade, F., Zafarullah, M. (2004). Transforming growth factor beta induction of tissue inhibitor of metaloproteinase 3 in articular chondrocytes is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med, 37, 196-207.
- Prabhu, V. V., Guruvayoorappan, C. (2012). Anti-inflammatory and anti tumor activity of the marine mangrove Rhizophora apiculata. J Immunotoxicol, 9(4), 341-52.
- Ross, R. (1999). Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med, 340,:115–126.
- Sahoo, G., Mulla, N. S. S., Ansari, Z. A., Mohandes, C. (2012). Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens. Indian J Pharm Sci, 74(4), 348-51.
- World Health Organization. (2009). Cardiovascular diseases fact sheet. Geneva: World Health Organization.