Molecular Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis in Feces Samples From Napu Valley Community of Poso Regency, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

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Nur Indang

Abstract

Schistosomiasis is infection caused by Schistosoma worms. Schistosomiasis in Indonesia caused by a worm of Schistosoma japonicum, which is an endemic disease and it is only found in Central selawesi, in high land of Napu Valley, Lindu, and Bada villages. Prevalence of schistosomiasis during 2001-2010 experienced fluctuation, which the lowest prevalence was in 2003, it was 0.70%, and the highest prevalence was in 2010, it was 5.68%. In 2012, the proportion of schistosomiasis case in Napu was 1.44%. From 15 Sub-districts examined in Napu Highland area, there were 12 sub-districts which had the prevalence above the WHO standard of 1%. Routine inspection was conducted by the Department of Health-Central Sulawesi microscopically based on Kato-Katz method. Target of this study is to find out comparation accuration data resulted from molecular examination by PCR method, compare to the results of microscopic examination based on Kato-Katz method. This research was an observational descriptive research. Molecular examination by PCR method was done using primers sequencing of forward 5’-TCT AAT GCT ATT GGT TTG AGT-3’ and reverse 5’-TTC CTT ATT TTC ACA AGG TGA-3’. The target umplification was DNA of SjR2 gene, at 230 bp band. Preserved feces samples was done using ethanol 96% at Dodolo village, that have been previously examined microscopically using Kato-Katz method. Based on microscopic examination on 70 samples, 19 sample was positive infected by the worm of S japonicum, and 51 sample of them was  shown negative result. Upon further investigation molecularly by PCR, there were 40 people positively detected for infection by the worm S. japonicum, which was shown by appearing on the target band of 230 bp, while 30 others samples were declared negatively. Molecular examination data showed two times more likely in detecting schistosomiasis, compared to microscopic examination by the Kato-Katz method. Our data also showed that Molecular examination using PCR method can be used for 70-96% ethanol-preserved facel samples.

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