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Free radicals are molecules with one or more unpaired electrons, making them unstable and highly reactive. Antioxidants, on the other hand, are compounds that can prevent or inhibit the oxidation of substrates caused by free radicals, even at low concentrations. The body can produce antioxidants enzymatically, such as through the action of superoxide dismutase (SOD). To design the primers for our study, we used bioinformatics software available on the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and IDT Prime websites. The SOD Rattus norvegicus gene (Z24721.1) was obtained from GenBank NCBI on the NCBI website and converted into the FASTA format. Our results indicated that the forward primer 5'- CAC TTC GAG CAG AAG GCA AG -3' and the reverse primer 5'-TCC CAA TCA CAC CAC AAG CC -3' qualified as good primers, with a product length of 236 bp.

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